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          • 暑期加油站 | 小学英语基础知识汇总,暑假给孩子的学习素材(值得收藏)

            发布时间:2018-07-11 14:57



            小编说

            这篇文章从英语基础知识、语法、句法、三个方面归纳总结了小学英语必备知识。老师可以分享给更多孩子们,暑期对照查这查缺补漏,方便学习哦~




            第一部分:基础知识


            1.字母:26个字母的大小写

            ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

            abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

            2.语音:元音的发音

            五个元音字母:AEIOU

            12个单元音:

            前元音:[i:] [ɪ] /e/ [æ]

            中元音:[ɜ:] [ə]

            后元音:[ɑ:] [ɒ] [ɔ:] [u :] [ʊ] [ʌ]

            双元音(8个)

            Ⅰ.合口双元音(5个)[ai] [ei] [au] [əu] [ɔi]

            Ⅱ.集中双元音(3个) [iə][εə][uə]

            3.词汇:词汇量,近反义词

            4.句子:大小写,标点符号


            第二部分:语法知识

            名词


            名词单复数,名词的格式

            (一)名词单复数

            1.一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

            2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

            3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

            4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

            5.不规则名词复数:man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice

            child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

            不可数名词的复数就是原型: paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea

            (二)名词的格

            (1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格:

            a) 单数后加 ’s 如: Lucy’s ruler my father’s shirt

            b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’如: his friends’ bags

            c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加 ’s children’s shoes

            l并列名词中,如果把 ’s加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, 如:

            Tom and Mike’s car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车

            l要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加’s

            Tom’s and Mike’s cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车

            (2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of +名词”来表示所有关系:如:a picture of the classroom a map of China


            冠词


            不定冠词,定冠词种类:

            (1)不定冠词:a / an a unit / an uncle

            元音开头的可数名词前用an :

            an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress / an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /

            (2)定冠词:the the egg the plane

            2. 用法:

            定冠词的用法:

            (1)特指某(些)人或某(些)物: The ruler is on the desk.

            (2)复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.

            (3)谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys aren’t at school.

            (4)在序数词前: John’s birthday is February the second.

            (5)用于固定词组中: in the morning / afternoon / evening

            不用冠词的情况:

            (1)专有名词前:China is a big country.

            (2)名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等:

            This is my baseball.

            (3)复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys can’t swim. They are teachers.

            (4)在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. It’s Sunday.

            (5)一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.

            (6)球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home.

            * 但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.

            (7)学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.

            (8)在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.

            (9)固定词组中:at noon at night by bus


            代词、形容词、副词


            代词:人称代词,物主代词


            人称代词物主代词

            主格宾格

            第一

            人称单数I(我)memy(我的)

            复数we(我们)usour(我们的)

            第二

            人称单数you(你)youyour(你的)

            复数you(你们)youyour(你们的)

            第三

            人称单数he(他)himhis(他的)

            she(她)herher(她的)

            it(它)itits(它的)

            复数they(他们/她们/它们)themtheir(他们的/她们的/它们的)


            形容词,副词:比较级,最高级

            (一)、形容词的比较级

            1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)。

            2.形容词加er的规则:

            ⑴ 一般在词尾加er ;

            ⑵ 以字母e 结尾,加r ;

            ⑶ 以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ;

            ⑷ 以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er 。

            3.不规则形容词比较级:

            good-better, beautiful-more beautiful

            (二)副词的比较级

            1.形容词与副词的区别(有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)

            ⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后

            ⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后

            2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同(不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)


            四、数词:基数词、序数词

            (1)1-20

            one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty

            (2)21-99 先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。

            23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one

            (3)101—999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数;

            586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three

            (4)l,000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand.第二个“,”前为million,第三个“,”前为billion

            1,001→one thousand and one

            18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three

            6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine

            750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty billion

            序数词

            (1)一般在基数词后加th

            eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth

            (2)不规则变化

            one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve—twelfth

            (3)以y结尾的十位整数,变y为ie再加th

            twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth

            (4)从二十一后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。

            twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth


            基数词转为序数词的口诀:


            基变序,有规律,词尾加上-th.

            一,二,三,特殊记,词尾字母t,d,d.

            八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。

            ty将y变成i,th前面有个e.

            若是碰到几十几,前用基来后用序。


            介词


            常用介词:in, on, at, behind等

            1.at表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。

            at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)

            2.on

            1)表示具体日期。

            注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:

            at(on)the weekend 在周末---特指

            at(on)weekends 在周末---泛指

            over the weekend 在整个周末

            during the weekend 在周末期间

            (2)在圣诞节,应说at Christmas?而不说on Christmas?

            2)在(刚……)的时候。

            On reaching the city he called up his parents.

            一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。

            3.in

            1)表示"时段"、"时期",在多数情况下可以和during互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。 in(during)1988(December,the 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)



            动词:动词的四种时态


            (1)一般现在时:

            一般现在时的构成

            1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。

            2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。 如: We study English. 我们学习英语。

            当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

            动词+s的变化规则

            1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

            2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

            3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

            (2)一般过去时:

            动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:

            A、规则动词

            ① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited

            ② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used

            ③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

            ④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped

            B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,

            see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt

            (3)一般将来时:

            基本结构:

            ①be going to + do;

            ②will+ do. be going to = will

            I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

            (4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词

            动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:

            ① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating

            ② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing

            ③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting


            第三部分:句法


            01

            陈述句


            (1)肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如:I’m a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.

            There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.

            (2)、否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:I’m not a student. She is not (isn’t) a doctor.

            He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital. There are not (aren’t) four fans in our classroom.

            He will not (won’t) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didn’t) watch TV yesterday evening.


            02

            疑问句


            一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes”,或“no”来回答。

            特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子。此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用“yes 、no”来回答。


            03

            There be句型


            There be 句型与have, has的区别

            1、There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人)

            2、在there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用is ; 主语是复数,be 动词用are ; 如有几件物品,be 动词根据最*近be 动词的那个名词决定。

            3、there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。

            4、there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。

            5、some 和any 在there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。

            6、and 和or 在there be句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。

            7、针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:

            How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语?

            How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语?

            8、针对主语提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:

            What’s + 介词短语?


            这一期的干货小编就送到这里啦!


            大家收藏起来咯!




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